What Are The Basic Parts Of A Computer System?

The basic parts of a computer system will be similar to other IT devices. Because all the technological devices have the same basic parts in them.

Parts Of Computer System:

A computer is mainly made up of a processor (CPU), memory, and input or output device. The working process of these materials is the main priority. Input data on the computer that processes with the help of CPU and memory and then gives the result in the form of output. Besides these three main parts computer has also many other important parts.

They are the motherboard, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), Random Access Memory (RAM). Storage materials like Solis State Drive (SDD), Hard Disk Drive (HDD) are also essential parts of a computer. Here GPU is known as video card and RAM is known as memory also. 

Basic Parts Of A Computer:

The basic parts of the computer are Monitor, CPU, Keyboard, Mouse, RAM, Processor, Hard Drive, SSD, Graphics Card, etc. Without these components a computer system is incomplete. A hard drive is the most important material in a computer to store data. The main motive of a computer is to store data and process them according to the user’s need.  Hence the basic parts of the computer are compulsory components to run a computer smoothly. These basic parts are complementary to a computer system. 

The Basic Parts Of A Computer System Are:

Here we will discuss the basic parts of a computer system in detail. In this part, you will get a short brief about all the basic parts of a computer. 


The monitor is the main screen where you can see the working method of a computer. It displays everything in a system. It allows you to see images, videos, texts, and other things on the display screen. Basically, a monitor works with the help of a video card. Without this video card, the monitor can’t display the screen. Usually, the monitor can in three types.

They are LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), LED (Light-Emitting Diode), and CRT (Cathode Ray Tube). Nowadays LCD and LED displays are available everywhere. CRT displays are used in older monitors. CRT monitors are larger and heavy than LCD or LED monitors. LCD and LED monitors are very thin and lightweight also. For this, they are often called flat-panel displays. 


The full form of CPU is Central Processing Unit. It is the main processor of a computer system. The main work of the CPU is to follow the instructions of the user. It performs the basic instructions of computer programs. The main part of the CPU is ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit). It looks after the arithmetic and logical operations. We all know that the CPU is the brain of a computer system. It plays a vital role in computer performance. CPU is the main control unit of the system. It instructs the whole system to run politely. In recent, modern computers contain microprocessors. 


A keyboard is the main medium to communicate with a computer. It is the source of typing on a computer. To instruct a computer according to your need you have to give a command to the computer. Through the keyboard, you can type on a computer. It is the only way to contact your system. Various types of keyboards are available in the market. Most of them are similar to each other. You can observe the basic tasks of the keyboard almost on every keyboard. In a keyboard, every key is interactive. Each part of every keyboard is quite similar. 


The mouse is a pointing device of a computer system. It is another important tool to communicate with your computer system.  It is used to pointing at a specific object on the screen. You can move the mouse pointer anywhere on your system’s screen. By using a mouse pointer you can click on objects to instruct the system. Two types of Mouse are mainly used everywhere.

They are optical and mechanical. The optical ones are used as an electronic eye to detect all the movement. It is easy to use for everyone. For rolling balls and regular cleaning, mechanical ones are used. Trackball and touchpad are two more important features in it. Using the trackball of a mouse the screen can scroll very easily. And touchpad is mostly common on laptop devices. It works as an alternative to the mouse. 

5.RAM (Random Access Memory)

RAM is the hardware inside the computer system. It is used as a memory on the computer system. RAM is used to store data to access the information quickly by the device’s processor. It’s a short-term memory to store temporary data. To perform all the commands of your computer it is used.

RAM remains active when the computer is on. It is lost when your computer is turned off. Usually, RAM is surveyed in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB). In general, a laptop or computer comes with 8 gigabytes (GB). But a hard disk can hold 10 terabytes at once. 


The processor accepts instructions from the user and follows them. It transfers data from the main memory and processes back them. This also executes functions with specific instructions. A processor of a computer is placed inside the CPU. The basic job of a processor is to receive input and provide the correct output. It is a small chip in a computer device. 


The full form of SSD is Solid State Drive. It is also a storage device that stores data ceaselessly. SSD mainly increases the performance speed of a computer. It boasts higher data transfer rates, gives better authenticity, and quick access times better than a hard disk. SSD runs silently but works faster and much better than a normal hard disk. It has much lower concealment also.

Basically SSD stores data in cells. That cells are able to contain between 1-4 bits of data. SSD is a flash-based and replaceable memory. When a hard disk becomes older, the performance of the system becomes slower. To run fast your computer SSD can use. 

8.Graphics Card

For playing videos or games a computer needs to install a graphics card. It is not mandatory for all computers. But for gaming PC it is a must. This is a circuit connected with the motherboard. It is used for a good quality of images and videos. generates output images to the display device.

It also includes processing units and memory also. A high-quality graphics card has its own memory and cooling system in it. a graphics processor has share system resources with the main focal point of the system. the graphics card is also known as a video card, display card, display adapter, or graphics adapter.


Without the basic parts, a computer system is incomplete. A computer system is an electric device. Its basic parts are related to technology. These parts play a vital role in running the computer. These tools are like the life of a computer. They are very essential to run a computer properly. These components affect the performance of the computer. 

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Shabrina Sugondha

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